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Orchid Phalaenopsis
 

Orchid Phalaenopsis


Part Number: ORC-0011-4108
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Phalaenopsis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Phalaenopsis, known as the Moth Orchid, abbreviated Phal in the horticultural trade, is an orchid genus of approximately 60 species. Phalaenopsis is one of the most popular orchids in the trade, through the development of many artificial hybrids.


Description

The generic name means "Phalaen[a]-like" and is probably a reference to the genus Phalaena, the name given by Carl Linnaeus to a group of large moths; the flowers of some species supposedly resemble moths in flight. For this reason, the species are sometimes called Moth orchids.

They are native throughout southeast Asia from the Himalayan mountains to the islands of Polillo, Palawan and Zamboanga del Norte in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines and northern Australia. Orchid Island of Taiwan is named after this genus. Little recent information about their habitat and their ecology in nature is available since little field research has been done in the last decades.

Most are epiphytic shade plants; a few are lithophytes. In the wild, some species grow below the canopies of moist and humid lowland forests, protected against direct sunlight; others grow in seasonally dry or cool environments. The species have adapted individually to these three habitats.

Possessing neither pseudobulbs nor rhizome, Phalaenopsis shows a monopodial growth habit: a single growing stem produces one or two alternate, thick, fleshy, elliptical leaves a year from the top while the older, basal leaves drop off at the same rate. If very healthy, a Phalaenopsis plant can have up to ten or more leaves. The inflorescence, either a raceme or panicle, appears from the stem between the leaves. They bloom in their full glory for several weeks. If kept in the home, the flowers may last two to three months.

Some Phalaenopsis species in Malaysia are known to use subtle weather cues to coordinate mass flowering


Classification

The genus can be classified into two groups :

††† A group of species with a long, branched inflorescence (up to 1 m long) and large, almost round flowers with rose or white tints.
††† A group of species with short stems and less rounded, waxy flowers with more pronounced colors.

In terms of Raunkiśr plant lifeform terminology, these plants are epiphytes.

Based on DNA evidence, the genera Doritis Lindl. and Kingidium P.F.Hunt are now included in Phalaenopsis, according to the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. However not every specialist in this field accepts these taxonomic changes.

Intensive cross-fertilization has produced a great number of hybrids in all colors and variations. These are usually more adaptable to artificial conditions than their botanical ancestors. Many are hybrids of Phalaenopsis amabilis, Phalaenopsis schilleriana or Phalaenopsis stuartiana.


Species

Phalaenopsis cultivar, possibly 'Aphrodite'
Phalaenopsis cultivar
Phalaenopsis (Barbara Moler x Johanna)

††† Phalaenopsis amabilis (Moon Orchid; East Malaysia to Papuasia)
††††††† Phalaenopsis amabilis subsp. amabilis (East Malaysia to Papuasia).
††††††† Phalaenopsis amabilis subsp. amabilis forma Grandiflora (the Philippines - Palawan island).
††††††† Phalaenopsis amabilis subsp. moluccana (Northeastern Borneo to the Moluccas).
††††††† Phalaenopsis amabilis subsp. rosenstromii (New Guinea to Queensland).
††† Phalaenopsis amboinensis (Sulawesi to the Moluccas).
††††††† Phalaenopsis amboinensis var. amboinensis (the Moluccas).
††††††† Phalaenopsis amboinensis var. flavida (Sulawesi)

Pink Phalaenopsis

††† Phalaenopsis aphrodite (Southeastern Taiwan to the Philippines).
††††††† Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. aphrodite (the Philippines).
††††††† Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana (Southeastern Taiwan).
††† Phalaenopsis appendiculata (Malaya to northeastern Borneo).
††† Phalaenopsis bastianii (the Philippines - Luzon).
††† Phalaenopsis bellina (Borneo).
††† Phalaenopsis borneensis (Borneo).
††† Phalaenopsis braceana (Eastern Himalayas to China - Yunnan).
††† Phalaenopsis buyssoniana (Indochina)
††† Phalaenopsis celebensis (Sulawesi)
††† Phalaenopsis chibae (Vietnam)

Phalaenopsis flower.JPG

††† Phalaenopsis cochlearis (Malaya to Borneo)
††† Phalaenopsis corningiana (Borneo)
††† Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi (Indochina to southern Philippines)
††† Phalaenopsis deliciosa (Indian subcontinent to Malesia)
††††††† Phalaenopsis deliciosa subsp. deliciosa (Indian subcontinent to Malesia)
††††††† Phalaenopsis deliciosa subsp. hookeriana (Eastern Himalayas to southwestern China)
††††††† Phalaenopsis deliciosa subsp. philippinensis (the Philippines)
††† Phalaenopsis doweryŽnsis (Northeastern Borneo).
††† Phalaenopsis equestris (Taiwan - Hsiao Lan YŁ to the Philippines)
††††††† Phalaenopsis equestris var. alba
††††††† Phalaenopsis equestris var. aurantiacum
††††††† Phalaenopsis equestris f. aurea (synonym of the accepted name Phalaenopsis equestris (Schauer) Rchb.f.,, 1850 )
††††††† Phalaenopsis equestris var. coerulea
††††††† Phalaenopsis equestris f. cyanochila (synonym of the accepted name Phalaenopsis equestris (Schauer) Rchb.f.,, 1850 )
††††††† Phalaenopsis equestris var. leucaspis
††††††† Phalaenopsis equestris var. leucotanthe
††††††† Phalaenopsis equestris var. rosea (synonym of the accepted name Phalaenopsis equestris (Schauer) Rchb.f.,, 1850 )
††† Phalaenopsis fasciata (the Philippines).
††† Phalaenopsis fimbriata (Sumatra, Java and Borneo).
††† Phalaenopsis floresensis (Lesser Sunda Islands).
††† Phalaenopsis fuscata (Borneo to Philippines - Palawan island)
††† Phalaenopsis gibbosa (Vietnam).

Phalaenopsis cultivars

††† Phalaenopsis gigantea (Borneo to Java).
††† Phalaenopsis hainanensis (China - Hainan and Yunnan).
††† Phalaenopsis hieroglyphica (the Philippines - Luzon, Leyte, Samar, Palawan, and Mindanao islands).
††††††† Phalaenopsis hieroglyphica var. Alba
††† Phalaenopsis honghenensis (China - Yunnan).
††† Phalaenopsis inscriptiosinensis (Central Sumatra
††† Phalaenopsis javanica (Western Java).
††† Phalaenopsis kunstleri (Myanmar to Malaya).
††† Phalaenopsis lamelligera (Northeastern Borneo).
††† Phalaenopsis lindenii (the Philippines - Luzon island).
††††††† Phalaenopsis lindenii var. alba
††† Phalaenopsis lobbii (Eastern Himalayas to Myanmar).
††† Phalaenopsis lowii (Southern Myanmar to western Thailand).
††† Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana (the Philippines).

Phalaenopsis Mambo (a hybrid cultivar)

††††††† Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana var. delicata
††††††† Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana var. ochracea
††† Phalaenopsis luteola (Northwestern Borneo).
††† Phalaenopsis maculata (Malaya to Borneo).
††† Phalaenopsis malipoensis Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen (China - Yunnan)
††† Phalaenopsis mannii (Eastern Himalayas to China - Yunnan).
††† Phalaenopsis mariae (Northeastern Borneo to the Philippines - Mindanao).
††† Phalaenopsis micholitzii (the Philippines - Mindanao island).
††† Phalaenopsis modesta (Borneo).
††† Phalaenopsis mysorensis (Indian subcontinent).
††† Phalaenopsis pallens (the Philippines - Luzon and Mindanao islands).
††† Phalaenopsis pantherina (Borneo).
††† Phalaenopsis parishii (Eastern Himalayas to Myanmar).
††† Phalaenopsis petelotii (Vietnam)
††† Phalaenopsis philippinensis (the Philippines - Luzon island).
††† Phalaenopsis pulcherrima (Indochina to Borneo). Formerly classified as Doritis.
††† Phalaenopsis pulchra (the Philippines - Luzon island).
††††††† Phalaenopsis pulchra var. Alba
††† Phalaenopsis regnieriana (Indochina).
††† Phalaenopsis reichenbachiana (the Philippines - Mindanao island).

Phalaenopsis Nivacolor (a hybrid cultivar)

††† Phalaenopsis robinsonii (the Moluccas).
††† Phalaenopsis sanderiana (the Philippines - Mindanao island).
††††††† Phalaenopsis sanderiana var. Alba
††††††† Phalaenopsis sanderiana var. Marmorata
††† Phalaenopsis schilleriana (the Philippines - Luzon, Mindoro, and Biliran islands).
††††††† Phalaenopsis schilleriana var. immaculata
††† Phalaenopsis speciosa (Andaman and Nicobar Islands).
††† Phalaenopsis stobartiana (China - southeastern Tibet to Guangxi)
††† Phalaenopsis stuartiana (the Philippines - Mindanao island).
††††††† Phalaenopsis stuartiana var. nobilis
††††††† Phalaenopsis stuartiana var. punctatissima
††† Phalaenopsis sumatrana (Indochina, Borneo to Philippines - Palawan island).
††† Phalaenopsis taenialis (Eastern Himalayas to China - Yunnan)
††† Phalaenopsis tetraspis (Andaman and Nicobar Islands to northwestern Sumatra).
††† Phalaenopsis venosa (Sulawesi).
††† Phalaenopsis violacea (Malaya to Sumatra).).
††† Phalaenopsis viridis (Sumatra).
††† Phalaenopsis wilsonii (China - southeastern Tibet to Guangxi).
††† Phalaenopsis zebrina (Borneo).

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