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Guzmania Bromeliad

Guzmania Bromeliad

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Guzmania Bromeliad

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Guzmania is a genus of over 120 species of flowering plants in the botanical family Bromeliaceae, subfamily Tillandsioideae. They are mainly stemless, evergreen, epiphytic perennials native to Florida, Central America, and northern and western South America. They are found at altitudes of up to 3,500 m (11,483 ft) in the Andean rainforests.
The genus name is for Anastasio Guzman, Spanish pharmacist and naturalist.
Several species of this genus are cultivated as indoor and outdoor garden plants. The best known is Guzmania lingulata (scarlet star) which bears orange and red bracts.
The plant dies after it has produced its flowers in summer, but new plants can easily be propagated from the offsets which appear as the parent plant dies. They are epiphytes and can do well if tied on to pieces of bark with roots bound into sphagnum moss.
Guzmanias require warm temperatures and relatively high humidity. The sac fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (anamorph of Cochliobolus sativus) and others can cause fatal root rot in plants of this genus if the roots get too wet and cold.
    Guzmania acorifolia (Grisebach) Mez
    Guzmania acuminata L.B. Smith
    Guzmania acutispica E. Gross
    Guzmania aequatorialis L.B. Smith
    Guzmania albescens H. Luther & Determann
    Guzmania alborosea H. Luther
    Guzmania alcantareoides H. Luther
    Guzmania alliodora E. Gross
    Guzmania altsonii L.B. Smith
    Guzmania × amoena H. Luther
    Guzmania amplectens L.B. Smith
    Guzmania andreana (E. Morren) Mez
    Guzmania andreettae Rauh
    Guzmania angustifolia (Baker) Wittmack
    var. nivea L.B. Smith
    Guzmania apiculata L.B. Smith
    Guzmania armeniaca H. Luther
    Guzmania asplundii L.B. Smith
    Guzmania atrocastanea H. Luther
    Guzmania attenuata L.B. Smith & R.W. Read
    Guzmania bakeri (Wittmack) Mez
    Guzmania barbiei Rauh
    Guzmania bergii H. Luther
    Guzmania berteroniana (Schultes f.) Mez
    Guzmania besseae H. Luther
    Guzmania betancurii H. Luther
    Guzmania bicolor L.B. Smith
    Guzmania bipartita L.B. Smith
    Guzmania bismarckii Rauh
    Guzmania blassii Rauh
    Guzmania brackeana Manzanares
    Guzmania bracteosa (André) André ex Mez
    Guzmania brasiliensis Ule
    Guzmania breviscapa H. Luther
    Guzmania brevispatha Mez
    Guzmania butcheri Rauh
    Guzmania cabrerae Gilmartin
    Guzmania calamifolia André ex Mez
    var. rosacea J.R. Grant
    Guzmania calothyrsus Mez
    Guzmania candelabrum (André) André ex Mez
    Guzmania caricifolia (André ex Baker) L.B. Smith
    Guzmania cerrohoyaensis H. Luther
    Guzmania cinnabarina H. Luther & K. Norton
    Guzmania circinnata Rauh
    Guzmania claviformis H. Luther
    Guzmania compacta Mez
    Guzmania condensata Mez & Wercklé
    Guzmania condorensis H. Luther
    Guzmania confinis L.B. Smith
    Guzmania confusa L.B. Smith
    Guzmania conglomerata H. Luther
    Guzmania conifera (André) André ex Mez
    Guzmania coriostachya (Grisebach) Mez
    Guzmania corniculata H. Luther
    Guzmania cuatrecasasii L.B. Smith
    Guzmania cuzcoensis L.B. Smith
    Guzmania cylindrica L.B. Smith
    Guzmania dalstroemii H. Luther
    Guzmania danielii L.B. Smith
    Guzmania darienensis H. Luther
    Guzmania delicatula L.B. Smith
    Guzmania densiflora Mez
    Guzmania desautelsii L.B. Smith & R.W. Read
    Guzmania devansayana E. Morren
    Guzmania diazii H. Luther
    Guzmania diffusa L.B. Smith
    Guzmania dissitiflora (André) L.B. Smith
    Guzmania donnell-smithii Mez ex Donnell Smith
    Guzmania dudleyi L.B. Smith
    Guzmania dussii Mez
    Guzmania ecuadorensis Gilmartin
    Guzmania eduardii André ex Mez
    Guzmania ekmanii (Harms) Harms ex Mez
    Guzmania elvallensis H. Luther
    Guzmania erythrolepis Brongniart ex Planchon
    Guzmania farciminiformis H. Luther
    Guzmania fawcettii Mez
    Guzmania filiorum L.B. Smith
    Guzmania flagellata S. Pierce & J.R. Grant
    Guzmania foetida Rauh
    Guzmania formosa H. Luther
    Guzmania fosteriana L.B. Smith
    Guzmania fuerstenbergiana (Kirchoff & Wittmack) Wittmack
    Guzmania fuquae H. Luther & Determann
    Guzmania garciaensis Rauh
    Guzmania glaucophylla Rauh
    Guzmania globosa L.B. Smith
    Guzmania glomerata Mez & Wercklé
    Guzmania gloriosa (André) André ex Mez
    Guzmania goudotiana Mez
    Guzmania gracilior (André) Mez
    Guzmania gracilis H. Luther
    Guzmania graminifolia (André ex Baker) L.B. Smith
    Guzmania harlingii H. Luther
    Guzmania hedychioides L.B. Smith
    Guzmania henniae H. Luther
    Guzmania herrerae H. Luther & W.J. Kress
    Guzmania hirtzii H. Luther
    Guzmania hitchcockiana L.B. Smith
    Guzmania hollinensis H. Luther
    Guzmania inexpectata H. Luther
    Guzmania izkoi Manzanares & W. Till
    Guzmania jaramilloi H. Luther
    Guzmania kalbreyeri (Baker) L.B. Smith
    Guzmania kareniae H. Luther & K. Norton
    Guzmania kentii H. Luther
    Guzmania killipiana L.B. Smith
    Guzmania kraenzliniana Wittmack
    Guzmania kressii H. Luther & K. Norton
    Guzmania laeta H. Luther
    Guzmania lehmanniana (Wittmack) Mez
    Guzmania lemeana Manzanares
    Guzmania lepidota (André) André ex Mez
    Guzmania lindenii (André) André ex Mez
    var. concolor Rauh
    Guzmania lingulata (Linnaeus) Mez
        var. cardinalis (André) André ex Mez
        var. minor (Mez) L.B. Smith & Pittendrigh
        var. flammea (L.B. Smith) L.B. Smith
        var. concolor Proctor & Cedeño-Maldonado
    Guzmania × litaensis H. Luther
    Guzmania longibracteata Betancur & Salinas
    Guzmania longipetala (Baker) Mez
    Guzmania loraxiana J.R. Grant
    Guzmania lychnis L.B. Smith
    Guzmania macropoda L.B. Smith
    Guzmania madisonii H. Luther
    Guzmania manzanaresiorum H. Luther
    Guzmania marantoidea (Rusby) H. Luther
    Guzmania megastachya (Baker) Mez
    Guzmania melinonis Regel
    Guzmania membranacea L.B. Smith & Steyermark
    Guzmania mitis L.B. Smith
    Guzmania monostachia (Linnaeus) Rusby ex Mez
        var. variegata hortus ex Nash
        var. alba Ariza-Julia
    Guzmania morreniana (Linden hortus) Mez
    Guzmania mosquerae (Wittmack) Mez
    Guzmania mucronata (Grisebach) Mez
    Guzmania multiflora (André) André ex Mez
    Guzmania musaica (Linden & André) Mez
        var. zebrina Cutak
        var. concolor L.B. Smith
        var. discolor H. Luther
        var. rosea H. Luther
    Guzmania nicaraguensis Mez & Baker ex Mez
    Guzmania nidularioides L.B. Smith & R.W. Read
    Guzmania nubicola L.B. Smith
    Guzmania nubigena L.B. Smith
    Guzmania obtusiloba L.B. Smith
    Guzmania oligantha Lozano
    Guzmania osyana (E. Morren) Mez
    Guzmania pallida L.B. Smith
    Guzmania palustris (Wittmack) Mez
    Guzmania paniculata Mez
    Guzmania pattersonae Manzanares
    Guzmania patula Mez & Wercklé
    Guzmania pearcei (Baker) L.B. Smith
    Guzmania pennellii L.B. Smith
    Guzmania plicatifolia L.B. Smith
    Guzmania plumieri (Grisebach) Mez
    Guzmania polycephala Mez & Wercklé ex Mez
    Guzmania poortmanii (André) André ex Mez
    Guzmania pseudospectabilis H. Luther
    Guzmania pungens L.B. Smith
    Guzmania puyoensis Rauh
    Guzmania radiata L.B. Smith
    Guzmania rauhiana H. Luther
    Guzmania regalis H. Luther
    Guzmania remediosensis E. Gross
    Guzmania remyi L.B. Smith
    Guzmania retusa L.B. Smith
    Guzmania rhonhofiana Harms
        var. rhonhofiana
            forma variegata H. Luther
    Guzmania roezlii (E. Morren) Mez
    Guzmania rosea L.B. Smith
    Guzmania roseiflora Rauh
    Guzmania rubrolutea Rauh
    Guzmania rugosa L.B. Smith & R.W. Read
    Guzmania sanguinea (André) André ex Mez
        var. brevipedicellata Gilmartin
        var. comosa H. Luther
    Guzmania scandens H. Luther & W.J. Kress
    Guzmania scherzeriana Mez
    Guzmania septata L.B. Smith
    Guzmania sibundoyorum L.B. Smith
    Guzmania sieffiana H. Luther
    Guzmania skotakii H. Luther
    Guzmania sneidernii L.B. Smith
    Guzmania spectabilis (Mez & Wercklé) J. Utley
    Guzmania sphaeroidea (André) André ex Mez
    Guzmania sprucei (André) L.B. Smith
    Guzmania squarrosa (Mez & Sodiro) L.B. Smith & Pittendrigh
    Guzmania stenostachya L.B. Smith
    Guzmania steyermarkii L.B. Smith
    Guzmania straminea (K. Koch) Mez
    Guzmania striata L.B. Smith
    Guzmania stricta L.B. Smith
    Guzmania strobilantha (Ruiz & Pavón) Mez
    Guzmania subcorymbosa L.B. Smith
    Guzmania tarapotina Ule
    Guzmania tenuifolia (H. Luther) Betancur & Salinas
    Guzmania terrestris L.B. Smith & Steyermark
    Guzmania testudinis L.B. Smith & R.W. Read
        var. splendida H. Luther
    Guzmania teucamae H. Luther & K. Norton
    Guzmania teuscheri L.B. Smith
    Guzmania triangularis L.B. Smith
    Guzmania undulatobracteata (Rauh) Rauh
    Guzmania vanvolxemii (André) André ex Mez
    Guzmania variegata L.B. Smith
    Guzmania ventricosa (Grisebach) Mez
    Guzmania verecunda L.B. Smith
    Guzmania victoriae Rauh
    Guzmania virescens (Hooker) Mez
    Guzmania viridiflora E. Gross
    Guzmania vittata (Martius ex Schultes f.) Mez
    Guzmania weberbaueri Mez
    Guzmania wittmackii (André) André ex Mez
    Guzmania xanthobractea Gilmartin
    Guzmania xipholepis L.B. Smith
    Guzmania zahnii (Hooker f.) Mez
        var. longiscapa Rauh
    Guzmania zakii H. Luther

Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae)

The Bromeliaceae (the bromeliads) are a family of monocot flowering plants of around 3,170 species native mainly to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa, Pitcairnia feliciana. They are one of the basal families within the Poales and are unique because they are the only family within the order that has septal nectaries and inferior ovaries. These inferior ovaries characterize the Bromelioideae, a subfamily of the Bromeliaceae. The family includes both epiphytes, such as Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides), and terrestrial species, such as the pineapple (Ananas comosus). Many bromeliads are able to store water in a structure formed by their tightly-overlapping leaf bases. However, the family is diverse enough to include the tank bromeliads, grey-leaved epiphyte Tillandsia species that gather water only from leaf structures called trichomes, and a large number of desert-dwelling succulents.

The largest bromeliad is Puya raimondii, which reaches 3–4 m tall in vegetative growth with a flower spike 9–10 m tall, and the smallest is Spanish moss.


Bromeliads are a varied group of organisms, adapted to a number of climates. Foliage take different shapes, from needle-thin to broad and flat, symmetrical to irregular, spiky to soft. The foliage, which usually grows in a rosette, is the most widely patterned and colored of any plant in the world. Leaf colors range from maroon, through shades of green, to gold. Varieties may have leaves with red, yellow, white and cream variegations. Others may be spotted with purple, red, or cream, while others have different colors on the tops and bottoms of the leaves.

The inflorescences produced by bromeliads are also regarded as considerably more diverse than any other plant family. Some flower spikes may reach 10 meters tall, while others only measure 2–3 mm across. Upright stalks may be branched or simple with spikes retaining their color from two weeks up to 12 months, depending on species. In some species, the flower remains unseen, growing deep in the base of the plants.

Root systems vary according to plant type. Terrestrial bromeliad species have complex root systems that gather water and nutrients, while epiphytic bromeliads only grow hard, wiry roots to attach themselves to trees and rocks.

Some bromeliads are faintly scented, while others are heavily perfumed. Blooms from the species Tillandsia cyanea resemble the smell of clove spice.

One study found 175,000 bromeliads per hectare (2.5 acres) in one forest; that many bromeliads can sequester 50,000 liters (more than 13,000 gallons) of water.

A wide variety of organisms take advantage of the pools of water trapped by bromeliads. A study of 209 plants from the Ecuadorian lowlands identified 11,219 animals, representing more than 300 distinct species, many of which are found only on bromeliads. Examples include some species of ostracods, small salamanders about 2.5 cm (1 in) in length, and tree frogs. Jamaican bromeliads are home to Metopaulias depressus, a reddish-brown crab 2 cm (0.75 inch) across, which has evolved social behavior to protect its young from predation by Diceratobasis macrogaster, a species of damselfly whose larvae live in bromeliads. Some bromeliads even form homes for other species of bromeliads.


Plants in the Bromeliaceae are widely represented in their natural climates across the Americas. One species can be found in Africa. They can be found at altitudes from sea level to 4200 meters, from rainforests to deserts. Approximately half the species are epiphytes, some are lithophytes, and some are terrestrial. Accordingly, these plants can be found in the Andean highlands, from northern Chile to Colombia, in the Sechura Desert of coastal Peru, in the cloud forests of Central and South America, in southern United States from southern Virginia to Florida to Texas, and in far southern Arizona.


Bromeliads are one of the more recent plant groups to have emerged. The greatest number of primitive species reside in the Andean highlands of South America, where they originated in the tepuis of the Guyana Shield. The most basal genus, Brocchinia, is endemic to these tepuis, and is placed as the sister group to the remaining genera in the family. The west African species Pitcairnia feliciana is the only bromeliad not endemic to the Americas, and is thought to have reached Africa via long-distance dispersal about 12 million years ago.


The plants within the Bromeliaceae are able to live in a vast array of environmental conditions due to their many adaptations. Trichomes, in the form of scales or hairs, allow bromeliads to capture water in cloud forests and help to reflect sunlight in desert environments. Some bromeliads have also developed an adaptation known as the tank habit, which involves them forming a tightly bound structure with their leaves that helps to capture water and nutrients in the absence of a well-developed root system. Bromeliads also use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis to create sugars. This adaptation allows bromeliads in hot or dry climates to open their stomates at night rather than during the day, which reduces water loss.


The family Bromeliaceae is currently placed in the order Poales.


The family Bromeliaceae is organized into three subfamilies:

    Bromelioideae (32 genera, 861 species)
    Pitcairnioideae (16 genera, 1030 species)
    Tillandsioideae (9 genera, 1277 species)





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